The cultural, morphological, and physiological properties of Thermomonospora fusca (strain 190Th) are described. Its physiological properties show that this species is primarily a carbohydrate-degrading actinomycete which can use a wide range of plant sugars and polymeric carbohydrates as sources of carbon and energy. The culture does not use proteins or amino acids for carbon and energy, or as a nitrogen source. A few organic acids are utilized. Ammonia is the preferred nitrogen source. The culture has trace nutrient requirements which include biotin and an undetermined number of amino acids. These and other physiological characteristics are discussed in relation to the roles that T. fusca carries out as a saprophytic bacterium in nature. Its cultural and morphological properties are discussed in relation to the taxonomic status of this species in the literature.