Homocysteine and cardiovascular disease: current evidence and future prospects

Am J Med. 2002 May;112(7):556-65. doi: 10.1016/s0002-9343(02)01021-5.


Hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Despite the well-known effectiveness of vitamin supplementation in reducing homocysteine levels, it is not known whether lowering of homocysteine levels is associated with a reduction in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The aim of this review is to discuss the epidemiologic evidence about the relation between homocysteine and cardiovascular disease, the pathophysiologic mechanisms responsible for the deleterious vascular and hemostatic effects of homocysteine, and studies of the potential benefits of homocysteine-lowering therapy.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Blood Coagulation Disorders / blood
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / blood*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / mortality
  • Endothelium, Vascular / physiopathology
  • Homocysteine / blood*
  • Homocysteine / genetics
  • Humans
  • Hyperhomocysteinemia / complications*
  • Hyperhomocysteinemia / genetics
  • Hyperhomocysteinemia / physiopathology
  • Muscle, Smooth, Vascular / physiopathology
  • Risk Factors


  • Homocysteine