Chorioamnionitis correlates to preterm delivery prior to 30 weeks of gestation. In most studies, proxies of intrauterine infection (clinical chorioamnionitis, histological chorioamnionitis, intra-amniotic increase in cytokines) are associated with acute neonatal morbidity and mortality and, at least to some degree, with neurological impairments (periventricular leukomalacia, intraventricular hemorrhage, cerebral palsy, polymicrogyria), chronic lung disease, and involution of the thymus in the preterm infant. The connection to visual impairment and cognitive deficits is uncertain or unknown. Full-term babies exposed to intrauterine infection often present with depressed Apgar scores and neonatal encephalopathy, and are at markedly increased risk of developing cerebral palsy. The infectious/inflammatory mechanisms involved are incompletely understood, and the types of microbes, as well as the genetic characteristics of the host adaptive and innate immune response, need to be better characterized.