Effect of Soaking, Germination, Cooking and Fermentation on Antinutritional Factors in Cowpeas

Nahrung. 2002 Apr;46(2):92-5. doi: 10.1002/1521-3803(20020301)46:2<92::AID-FOOD92>3.0.CO;2-P.


The present work deals with the study of efficacy of some treatments, namely soaking (in water and bicarbonate solution), ordinary and pressure cooking, germination and fermentation in reducing or removal of antinutritional factors usually present in cowpeas (protease inhibitors, tannins, phytic acid and flatus-producing oligosaccharides (raffinose and stachyose). The results showed that long-time soaking (16 h) in bicarbonate solution caused remarkable reduction in the antinutritional factors. Pressure cooking was more effective than ordinary. Cooking pregerminated cowpeas was most effective. Fermentation completely removed trypsin inhibitor, oligosaccharides and reduced remarkably phytic acid. However, tannins noticeably increased.

MeSH terms

  • Cooking / methods
  • Fermentation
  • Food Handling / methods*
  • Germination
  • Nutritive Value
  • Oligosaccharides / analysis
  • Peas / chemistry*
  • Peas / growth & development
  • Peas / metabolism
  • Phytic Acid / analysis
  • Protease Inhibitors / analysis
  • Tannins / analysis


  • Oligosaccharides
  • Protease Inhibitors
  • Tannins
  • Phytic Acid