Alkylation and inactivation of human glutathione transferase zeta (hGSTZ1-1) by maleylacetone and fumarylacetone

Chem Res Toxicol. 2002 May;15(5):707-16. doi: 10.1021/tx025503s.


Glutathione transferase zeta (GSTZ1-1) catalyzes the cis-trans isomerization of maleylacetoacetate or maleylacetone (MA) to fumarylacetoacetate or fumarylacetone (FA), respectively. GSTZ1-1 also catalyzes the glutathione-dependent biotransformation of a range of alpha-haloacids, including dichloroacetic acid. The objective of this study was to investigate the mechanism of inactivation of hGSTZ1-1 by MA and FA and to determine the covalent modification of hGSTZ1-1 by MA and FA in the presence and absence of glutathione. MA and FA (0.01-1 mM) inactivated all hGSTZ1-1 polymorphic variants in a concentration- and time-dependent manner, and this inactivation was blocked by glutathione. The C16A mutant of hGSTZ1c-1c was partially inactivated by MA and FA. Electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry and SALSA (Scoring Algorithm for Spectral Analysis) analyses of tryptic digests of hGSTZ1 polymorphic variants revealed that the active site (SSCSWR) and C-terminal (LLVLEAFQVSHPCR) cysteine residues of hGSTZ1-1 were covalently modified by MA and FA. MA and FA adduction resulted in diagnostic 156-Da shifts in the masses of the modified peptide ions and in their MS-MS fragment ions. Alkylation of the active-site cysteine residues, but not of the C-terminal cysteine, was relatively less intense when hGSTZ1-1 polymorphic variants were incubated with MA or FA in the presence of S-methyl glutathione. These data indicate that MA and FA are substrate and product inactivators of hGSTZ1-1 and covalently modify hGSTZ1-1 at the active-site cysteine residue in the absence of glutathione. The observation that inactivation was blocked by glutathione indicates that binding of glutathione to the active site prevents reaction of MA or FA with the active-site cysteine residue. These data also indicate that MA and FA may covalently modify and inactivate other proteins that have accessible cysteine residues and may, thereby, contribute to dichloroacetic acid-induced or hypertyrosinemia type-I-associated toxicities.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Acetone / analogs & derivatives
  • Acetone / pharmacology*
  • Alkylation
  • Drug Interactions
  • Enzyme Inhibitors / pharmacology*
  • Fumarates / pharmacology*
  • Glutathione / pharmacology
  • Glutathione Transferase / antagonists & inhibitors*
  • Glutathione Transferase / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Maleates / pharmacology*


  • Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Fumarates
  • Maleates
  • fumarylacetone
  • maleylacetone
  • Acetone
  • GSTZ1 protein, human
  • Glutathione Transferase
  • Glutathione