Microsatellite allele 5 of MHC class I chain-related gene a increases the risk for insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in latvians

Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2002 Apr;958:349-52. doi: 10.1111/j.1749-6632.2002.tb03003.x.


Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) is one of the most common chronic diseases. It is an autoimmune, polygenic disease, associated with several genes on different chromosomes. The most important gene is human leukocyte antigen (HLA), also known as major histocompatibility complex (MHC), which is located on chromosome 6p21.3. HLA-DQ8/DR4 and DQ2/DR3 are positively associated with IDDM and DQ6 is negatively associated with IDDM in most Caucasian populations. The MICA gene is located in the MHC class I region and is expressed by monocytes, keratinocytes, and endothelial cells. Sequence determination of the MICA gene identifies 5 alleles with 4, 5, 6, and 9 repetitions of GCT or 5 repetitions of GCT with 1 additional insertion (GGCT), and the alleles are referred to as A4, A5, A5.1, A6, and A9. Analysis of allele distribution among 93 Latvian IDDM patients and 108 healthy controls showed that allele A5 of MICA is significantly increased in IDDM patients [33/93 (35%)] compared to healthy controls [22/108 (20%)] (OR = 2.15; P = 0.016). In conclusion, we believe that MICA may play an important role in the etiopathogenesis of IDDM.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Alleles*
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / genetics*
  • Female
  • Gene Frequency / genetics*
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease / genetics*
  • HLA-DQ Antigens / genetics
  • Histocompatibility Antigens Class I / genetics*
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Latvia
  • Male
  • Microsatellite Repeats / genetics


  • HLA-DQ Antigens
  • HLA-DQ2 antigen
  • HLA-DQ8 antigen
  • Histocompatibility Antigens Class I
  • MHC class I-related chain A