Metallothionein: the multipurpose protein

Cell Mol Life Sci. 2002 Apr;59(4):627-47. doi: 10.1007/s00018-002-8454-2.


Metallothioneins (MTs) are intracellular, low molecular, low molecular weight, cysteine-rich proteins. Ubiquitous in eukaryotes, MTs have unique structural characteristics to give potent metal-binding and redox capabilities. A primary role has not been identified, and remains elusive, as further functions continue to be discovered. The most widely expressed isoforms in mammals, MT-1 and MT-2, are rapidly induced in the liver by a wide range of metals, drugs and inflammatory mediators. In teh gut and pancreas, MT responds mainly to Zn status. A brain isoform, MT-3, has a specific neuronal growth inhibitory activity, while MT-1 and MT-2 have more diverse functions related to their thiolate cluster structure. These include involvement in Zn homeostasis, protection against heavy metal (especially Cd) and oxidant damage, and metabolic regulation via Zn donation, sequestration and/or redox control. Use of mice with altered gene expression has enhance our understanding of the multifaceted role of MT, emphasised in this review.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Brain / metabolism
  • Female
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Inflammation / metabolism
  • Metallothionein / chemistry
  • Metallothionein / genetics
  • Metallothionein / physiology*
  • Metallothionein 3
  • Metals, Heavy / toxicity
  • Mice
  • Mice, Knockout
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Pregnancy
  • Protein Isoforms / chemistry
  • Protein Isoforms / physiology
  • Tissue Distribution
  • Xenobiotics / toxicity
  • Zinc / metabolism


  • Metallothionein 3
  • Metals, Heavy
  • Mt3 protein, mouse
  • Protein Isoforms
  • Xenobiotics
  • Metallothionein
  • Zinc