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Review
, 8 (6), 625-30

Parachlamydiaceae: Potential Emerging Pathogens

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Review

Parachlamydiaceae: Potential Emerging Pathogens

Gilbert Greub et al. Emerg Infect Dis.

Abstract

Parachlamydiaceae, which naturally infect amoebae, form a sister taxon to the Chlamydiaceae on the basis of the Chlamydia-like cycle of replication and 80% to 90% homology of ribosomal RNA genes. Because intra-amoebal growth could increase the virulence of some intracellular bacteria, Parachlamydiaceae may be pathogenic. Arguments supporting a pathogenic role are that Chlamydia pneumoniae, a well-recognized agent of pneumonia, was shown to infect free-living amoebae and that another member of the Chlamydiales, Simkania negevensis, which has 88% homology with Parachlamydia acanthamoebae, has caused pneumonia in adults and acute bronchiolitis in infants. The recent identification of a 16S rRNA gene sequence of a Parachlamydiaceae from bronchoalveolar lavage is additional evidence supporting potential for pathogenicity.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Hall’s coccus within Acanthamoeba polyphaga. Diff Quick staining (Dade, Boehring, Paris, France). Magnification X 1,000.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Hall’s coccus within Acanthamoeba polyphaga. Electron microscopy, magnification X 12,000, bar = 1 µm.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree of the 16s rRNA gene sequence of Chlamydiales, including Chlamydiaceae, Parachlamydiaceae, and Simkaniaceae, compared with Legionella pneumophila (M 59157) as outgroup. Bar represents estimated evolutionary distance. The numbers at each node are the results of bootstrap analysis; each value is derived from 100 samples.

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