Therapies for metastatic pediatric sarcomas have reached maximum tolerated doses, but continue to provide suboptimal cure rates. Additionally, these treatments are associated with numerous short- and long-term side effects. Therefore, the search for newer, less toxic therapeutic agents is warranted. Overexpression of the inducible enzyme, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), has been discovered in a variety of adult solid tumors and numerous studies have shown COX-2 inhibitors to have significant antiproliferative effects. Therefore, we sought to determine the expression of COX-2 in pediatric sarcomas. We evaluated rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), osteosarcoma (OS), and Ewing sarcoma (EWS) samples for COX-2 expression by immunohistochemical analysis as well as by cDNA microarray analysis. COX-2 expression was detected in 48/58 (82.8%) tumors by immunohistochemistry and in an additional 52/59 (88.1%) tumors tested by microarray gene analysis. There was a trend toward increased COX-2 expression in metastatic rhabdomyosarcoma and osteosarcoma, though it did not reach clinical significance. The degree of COX-2 immunoreactivity did not vary significantly with other clinicopathologic features such as age, gender, or histologic classification. We conclude that the majority of these pediatric sarcoma samples express COX-2 to varying degrees. Therefore, studies testing the efficacy of COX-2 inhibitors in the treatment of pediatric sarcomas are warranted.