Functional defects and morphological changes of mitochondria have been reported to be in the skeletal muscle of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Recent studies suggested that mitochondrial abnormalities are related to the pathogenesis of ALS. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the ultrastructural changes of muscle mitochondria in ALS patients. The authors examined 49 cases of diagnostic muscle biopsy samples with definite or probable ALS by electron microscopy. Of the 49 cases, 5 (10%) had ultrastructural abnormalities of muscle mitochondria, including giant mitochondria, paracrystalline inclusions, and abnormal cristae. These abnormal mitochondria were mainly observed among subsarcolemmal mitochondrial aggregates.