A novel MCA occlusion model of photothrombotic ischemia with cyclic flow reductions: development of cerebral hemorrhage induced by heparin

Brain Res Brain Res Protoc. 2002 Apr;9(2):85-92. doi: 10.1016/s1385-299x(01)00124-6.


Intracerebral hemorrhage is the major complication associated with antithrombotic and thrombolytic therapy. Despite efforts directed toward achieving hemorrhagic infarction, an ideal animal model of cerebral hemorrhage has not yet to be established. Using the photothrombotic technique in rabbits, we developed a model of cerebral hemorrhage by inducing cyclic flow reductions in the middle cerebral artery (MCA). Furthermore, the hemorrhage increased 4-fold after infusion of heparin at a dose prolonging activated partial thromboplastin time by about three times that of control animals. The photothrombotic occlusion of the MCA is based on a thrombosis induced by endothelial injury through singlet oxygen produced by Rose Bengal injection and green light irradiation (Acta Neuropathol. 72 (1987) 315; Acta Neuropathol. 72 (1987) 326; J. Pharmacol. Toxicol. Methods. 29 (1993) 165). Using a pulse Doppler flowmeter, spontaneous reperfusion of the MCA after the thrombotic occlusion following cyclic flow reductions was observed within 2 h in the majority of animals. This model is unusual with respect to the development of clinical stroke, because of the MCA cyclic flow reductions. Thus it is different from permanent or ischemia/reperfusion MCA occlusion in rodents and may be suitable for studying hemorrhagic risks associated with the use of antithrombotic agents.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Brain / blood supply
  • Brain / pathology
  • Brain / physiopathology
  • Cerebral Hemorrhage / chemically induced*
  • Cerebral Hemorrhage / pathology
  • Cerebral Hemorrhage / physiopathology
  • Cerebral Infarction / chemically induced
  • Cerebral Infarction / pathology
  • Cerebral Infarction / physiopathology
  • Cerebrovascular Circulation / drug effects
  • Cerebrovascular Circulation / physiology
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Fluorescent Dyes*
  • Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery / chemically induced*
  • Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery / pathology
  • Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery / physiopathology
  • Male
  • Middle Cerebral Artery / pathology
  • Middle Cerebral Artery / physiopathology
  • Middle Cerebral Artery / surgery
  • Photic Stimulation
  • Photochemistry / instrumentation
  • Photochemistry / methods*
  • Rabbits
  • Reperfusion Injury / chemically induced*
  • Reperfusion Injury / pathology
  • Reperfusion Injury / physiopathology
  • Rose Bengal*
  • Vascular Surgical Procedures / instrumentation
  • Vascular Surgical Procedures / methods*


  • Fluorescent Dyes
  • Rose Bengal