An analysis of current dietary intakes of preschool and school children and adolescents belonging to poor income groups in India indicate that they suffer from deficiencies of several nutrients with associated clinical and functional consequences. The observed deficiencies include energy, calcium, iron, zinc, vitamin A, riboflavin, ascorbic acid, and folate. Some degree of protein deficiency is also present. The best strategy to correct the deficiencies of these nutrients is the food-based approach where nutrient-rich food supplements are formulated with nutrient-rich familiar foods and given to children at the household level. Another strategy for helping mothers and preschool children to achieve the recommended daily intakes is to fortify with micronutrients the supplementary foods currently targeted to them for improving their energy and protein intake. This can be achieved by expanding the current supplementary feeding program to school children and adolescents.