Limitations of autograft and allograft: new synthetic solutions

Orthopedics. 2002 May;25(5 Suppl):s561-70. doi: 10.3928/0147-7447-20020502-04.


Autogenous cancellous bone is widely regarded as an ideal construct for graft procedures, supplying osteoinductive growth factors, osteogenic cells, and a structural scaffold. However, procurement morbidity and constraints on obtainable quantities limit its use. Allograft is the next best alternative at present; however, minor immunogenic rejection and risk of disease transmission are unresolved issues. Although synthetic grafting materials eliminate these risks, these materials do not transfer osteoinductive or osteogenic elements to the host site. To offer the advantages of autograft and allograft, a composite graft may be considered. Such a graft can combine a synthetic scaffold with biologic elements to stimulate cell infiltration and new bone formation.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bone Substitutes / therapeutic use*
  • Bone Transplantation*
  • Calcium Phosphates / therapeutic use
  • Ceramics / therapeutic use
  • Clinical Trials as Topic
  • Collagen / therapeutic use
  • Humans
  • Transplantation, Autologous
  • Transplantation, Homologous


  • Bone Substitutes
  • Calcium Phosphates
  • beta-tricalcium phosphate
  • Collagen
  • tricalcium phosphate