Reticular dysgenesis is a very rare congenital immunodeficiency classified within the severe combined immunodeficiencies (SCID) and characterized by impairment of both lymphoid and myeloid cell development. We report our experience in 10 patients with RD, treated between 1979 and 1999 with HLA-haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). All children but one were symptomatic within the first days of their lives. Five patients required two HSCT. Five patients received conditioning therapy with busulfan (16 mg/kg) and cyclophosphamide. Three of them are alive and well with myeloid and T and B cell lymphoid reconstitution, whereas two patients died (one chronic graft-versus-host disease, one pneumonitis). Transplantation without or with other conditioning regimens in the other five cases led to absent or incomplete engraftment and none of these cases survived. These results demonstrate the mandatory need for intensive conditioning before haploidentical HSCT in RD to achieve full lymphoid and myeloid engraftment.