Co-occurrence of patulin and citrinin in Portuguese apples with rotten spots

Food Addit Contam. 2002 Jun;19(6):568-74. doi: 10.1080/02652030210121320.


Patulin and citrinin are mycotoxins produced by certain fungi mainly belonging to Penicillium and Aspergillus and may be detected in mouldy fruits and fruit products. The data presented here refer to the simultaneous occurrence of patulin and citrinin in 351 samples of seven different varieties of apples with small rotten areas (Casanova, Golden Delicious, Red Delicious, Reineta, Richared, Rome Beauty, Starking). A rapid multidetection thin layer chromatography (TLC) method was used. The minimum detectable concentrations of patulin and citrinin were 120-130 and 15-20 microg kg(-1) respectively. The percentage contamination with patulin only was higher (68.6%) than that with citrinin only (3.9%). Patulin and citrinin (19.6%) were also detected simultaneously. The highest mean patulin content was 80.50 mg kg(-1) for the Richared variety, but the mean level of citrinin was lower. The lowest mean contaminations of patulin were found in Rome Beauty, Red Delicious and Reineta, ranging from 3.06 to 5.37 mg kg(-1). All analysed apples varieties had low citrinin contamination, ranging from 0.32 to 0.92 mg kg(-1). These findings indicate that there may be a risk of human exposure to patulin through the consumption of juices and jams manufactured with apples with small rotten areas.

MeSH terms

  • Chromatography, Thin Layer
  • Citrinin / analysis*
  • Food Contamination / analysis*
  • Humans
  • Malus / chemistry*
  • Patulin / analysis*
  • Plant Diseases / microbiology*


  • Citrinin
  • Patulin