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, 95 (6), 311-3

Darwin in the World of Emotions


Darwin in the World of Emotions

John Black. J R Soc Med.


<i>Figure 1</i>
Figure 1
Normal expressions and the effects of galvanic stimulation. 1, 2, 3 and 5 portray spontaneous ‘moderate laughter or smiling’. 4 is the subject's normal expression and 6 shows the effect of galvanic stimulation. In his contribution to the 3rd edition of Darwin's book, Prodger says that 2 is Beatrice, daughter of Dr George Wallich (1815-1899) who took the photograph. 1 and 2 are by Oscar Rejlander (1813-1875). 4, 5 and 6 are by Duchenne. Duchenne's subject was chosen partly because he had defective cutaneous sensation in the face, permitting stimulation of the facial muscles without involuntary responses in other muscles, and allowing the lengthy stimulation necessary for photography at that time
<i>Figure 2</i>
Figure 2
A disappointed and sulky chimpanzee

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