Based on research demonstrating associations between folate, B-12 and B-6 vitamins and cognition and mood, we investigated the effects of short-term supplementation in 211 healthy younger, middle-aged and older women who took either 750 microg of folate, 15 microg of vitamin B-12, 75 mg of vitamin B-6 or a placebo daily for 35 d. In addition, we examined associations between dietary intake of these vitamins and cognition and mood. Usual dietary intake status was estimated using a retrospective, self-report, quantified food frequency questionnaire. Participants completed alternate forms of standardized tests of cognitive processing resources, memory, executive function, verbal ability and self-report mood measures before and after supplementation. Supplementation had a significant positive effect on some measures of memory performance only, and no effect on mood. Dietary intake status was associated with speed of processing, recall and recognition and verbal ability.