An open randomized study of inactivated hepatitis A vaccine administered concomitantly with typhoid fever and yellow fever vaccines

J Travel Med. 2002 Mar-Apr;9(2):66-70. doi: 10.2310/7060.2002.21955.


Background: Concomitant administration of several vaccines is a common practice when travel clinics prepare persons for international travel. The purpose of the study was to compare the immunogenicity and safety of hepatitis A, typhoid fever, and yellow fever vaccines administered concomitantly with hepatitis A vaccine administered alone and typhoid fever and yellow fever vaccines administered alone.

Methods: Healthy adults 18 to 55 years of age were randomized to receive either VAQTA, TyphimVi, and YF-VAX on day 0 and VAQTA at week 24 (Group 1); TyphimVi and YF-VAX on day 0 and an optional dose of VAQTA 1 month later (Group 2); or VAQTA at day 0 and week 24 (Group 3).

Results: From March to December 1997, a total of 240 subjects were enrolled, 80 in each treatment group. Most were female and Caucasian, and the mean age was 29.4 years. Four weeks after vaccine dose 1, seroconversion to protective antibody levels against hepatitis A was 95.9% in Group 1 and 100% in Group 3. In Group 1, 93.4% of subjects demonstrated at least a 4-fold rise in neutralizing antibody levels against typhoid, compared with 90% in Group 2. Serum neutralizing antibody against yellow fever developed in 98.6% of subjects in Group 1 compared with 100% in Group 2.

Conclusions: These findings were consistent with similarity in the immune responses between treatment groups as defined a priori. The adverse experience (AE) profile did not appear to be substantially affected by concomitant administration of all three vaccines. Providing these three vaccines concomitantly can simplify the process of obtaining pretravel prophylaxis and may help ensure that all needed vaccines are administered.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Antibodies / blood
  • Drug Administration Schedule
  • Female
  • Hepatitis A / prevention & control*
  • Hepatitis A Vaccines / administration & dosage*
  • Humans
  • Immunization Schedule
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Travel
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Typhoid Fever / prevention & control*
  • Typhoid-Paratyphoid Vaccines / administration & dosage*
  • Vaccines, Inactivated / administration & dosage
  • Yellow Fever / prevention & control*
  • Yellow Fever Vaccine / administration & dosage*


  • Antibodies
  • Hepatitis A Vaccines
  • Typhoid-Paratyphoid Vaccines
  • Vaccines, Inactivated
  • Yellow Fever Vaccine