Protein kinase C and AKT/protein kinase B in CD4+ T-lymphocytes: new partners in TCR/CD28 signal integration

Mol Immunol. 2002 Jun;38(15):1087-99. doi: 10.1016/s0161-5890(02)00011-1.


T-cell biological responses appear to involve the complex interaction of T-cell surface receptors, intracellular signaling molecules and the cytoskeleton. Both the serine/threonine protein kinase families protein kinase C (PKC) and protein kinase B or RAC-PK (AKT/PKB) have been implicated in signal transmission leading to activation, differentiation as well as cellular survival of T-lymphocytes. The PKC gene family consists of nine diverse isotypes (PKC alpha, beta, gamma, delta, epsilon, xi, eta, theta; and iota), the AKT/PKB gene family includes three kinases (AKT1/PKB alpha, AKT2/PKB beta, AKT3/PKB gamma). Here, we attempt to summarize the regulation as well as downstream signaling pathways of PKC and AKT/PKB isotypes, that may act additive in TCR/CD28 induced proliferation and survival of peripheral CD4+ T-lymphocytes.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • CD28 Antigens / metabolism*
  • CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology
  • CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes / metabolism*
  • Enzyme Activation / immunology
  • Homeostasis / immunology
  • Humans
  • Protein Kinase C / metabolism*
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases*
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins / metabolism*
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt
  • Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell / metabolism*
  • Signal Transduction / immunology*


  • CD28 Antigens
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell
  • AKT1 protein, human
  • AKT2 protein, human
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt
  • Protein Kinase C