We tested patients with celiac disease (CD) for the presence of serum anti-ganglioside antibodies. Six of twenty-seven patient sera were reactive against brain gangliosides by an agglutination immunoassay. Neurological examination in all six revealed the presence of distal sensory loss, consistent with the diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy. When tested by ELISA for antibodies to isolated GM1, GM2, GD1a, GD1b, GT1b, and GQ1b gangliosides, all six were positive for IgG antibodies to at least one. The neuropathy of celiac disease may be autoimmune and associated with anti-ganglioside antibodies. The presence of IgG reactivity furthermore implicates a T cell-mediated response to ganglioside antigens.