Aims: The present study was conducted to characterize the single- and multiple-dose pharmacokinetics of bosentan, a dual endothelin receptor antagonist, and to investigate a possible pharmacokinetic interaction with ketoconazole.
Methods: In a randomized, two-way crossover study, 10 healthy male subjects received treatments A and B. Treatment A consisted of a single dose of 62.5 mg bosentan on day 1 followed by 62.5 mg twice daily for 5.5 days. Treatment B consisted of bosentan (62.5 mg twice daily) for 5.5 days plus concomitant ketoconazole (200 mg once daily) for 6 days. Plasma concentrations of bosentan and its three metabolites were measured on days 1 and 7 of treatment A and on day 6 of treatment B.
Results: Bosentan was absorbed and eliminated with a tmax of 4.5 h (range 3.5-6.0 h) and a t(1/2) of 5.4 h (95% CI; 4.5, 6.6). Upon multiple dosing, the exposure to bosentan was reduced by 33% without change in tmax and t(1/2). Concomitant administration of ketoconazole increased the Cmax and AUC of bosentan 2.1- (95% CI; 1.5, 2.7) and 2.3-fold (95% CI; 1.8, 2.9), respectively. Exposure to the metabolites was low and represented less than 25% of that to bosentan both after single and multiple doses. In the presence of ketoconazole, formation of the metabolites was inhibited.
Discussion: The multiple-dose pharmacokinetics of bosentan are consistent with the phenomenon of auto-induction. In the presence of CYP3A4 inhibitors, bosentan concentrations may be increased 2-fold.