An isoform (rhesus UGT1A01) orthologus to the human UGT1A1 was cloned and sequenced from female rhesus monkey liver cDNA using primers designed from the human nucleotide sequences. Open reading frame analysis of the PCR-generated product encodes a 533-amino acid protein with a proposed 27-residue signal peptide. Nucleotide sequence comparison of rhesus UGT1A01 to other rhesus UGT1A isoforms detected a single-transition mutation at nucleotide 1520 (T-->C), resulting in a neutral F to S substitution at position 507. Rhesus UGT1A01 was greater than 99 and 95% identical to cynomolgus UGT1A01 and human UGT1A1, respectively. The rhesus UGT1A01 was expressed in HK-293 cells for functional analysis. Catalytic activity of UGT1A01 was determined with 7-hydroxy-4-(trifluoromethyl)-coumarin and more specific human UGT1A1 substrates (1-naphthol, beta-estradiol, 17 alpha-ethinylestradiol, and bilirubin). Expression of UGT1A01 protein was also detected by a Western blot utilizing a polyclonal antibody developed against the human UGT1A family.