We have developed a sensitive and specific HPLC-fluorescence assay for the determination of estradiol-3-glucuronide and estradiol-17-glucuronide in human and rat liver microsomal incubations. The method utilizes a mobile phase comprised of acetonitrile and 50 mM ammonium phosphate buffer (35:65, v/v) that is pumped though a phenyl column at 1 ml/min; the run time is less than 15 min. Calibration curves for both metabolites were linear over the range 20-4000 pmol. The intra- and inter-day coefficients of variation were <6%. In both rat and human liver microsomes, the formation of estradiol-3-glucuronide displayed atypical kinetics (consistent with activation), while estradiol-17-glucuronide formation was consistent with classical Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Overall, the assay described is a sensitive and reproducible method for the determination of estradiol glucuronides in liver microsomal preparations.