Self-management is an essential but frequently neglected component of chronic illness management that is challenging to implement. Available effectiveness data regarding self-management interventions tend to be from stand-alone programs rather than from efforts to integrate self-management into routine medical care. This article describes efforts to integrate self-management support into broader health care systems change to improve the quality of patient care in the Chronic Illness Care Breakthrough Series. We describe the general approach to system change (the Chronic Care Model) and the more specific self-management training model used. The process used in training organizations in self-management is discussed, and data are presented on teams from 21 health care systems participating in a 13-month-long Breakthrough Series to address diabetes and heart failure care. Available system-level data suggest that teams from a variety of health care organizations made improvements in support provided for self-management. Improvements were found for both diabetes and heart failure teams, suggesting that this improvement process may be broadly applicable. Lessons learned, keys to success, and directions for future research and practice are discussed.