A monoclonal antibody (mAb) against human Toll-like receptor (TLR) 3 was established and its effect on TLR3-mediated responses was tested using human fibroblast cell lines expressing TLR3 on the cell surface. Fibroblasts are known to produce IFN-beta upon viral infection or treatment with double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) through distinct signaling pathways. Here, we show the mAb to TLR3 suppressed poly(I):poly(C)-mediated IFN-beta production by human fibroblasts naturally expressing TLR3 on their surface. By reporter gene assay using HEK293 cells transfected with a human TLR3 expression vector, TLR3 recognized dsRNA to activate NF-kappaB and the IFN-beta promoter. TLR3 signaling was not elicited by either single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) or dsDNA. Thus, specific recognition of dsRNA by extracellular TLR3 is essential for induction of type I IFN: the interassociation between dsRNA and TLR3, regardless of direct or indirect binding, should be disrupted by mAb being attached to TLR3. The mAb against TLR3 reported herein may serve as a regulator for virus-mediated immune response via an alternative pathway involving the dsRNA-TLR3 recognition which might occur on host cells.