Localized bladder cancer

Curr Treat Options Oncol. 2000 Dec;1(5):423-32. doi: 10.1007/s11864-000-0070-5.


Transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the bladder makes up 90% of bladder cancers. The approach to the management of localized TCC includes accurate clinical and histologic diagnosis and staging with pathologic material obtained through endoscopy. Once the diagnosis of superficial TCC has been established, histologically based prognostic factors guide which therapy or combination of therapies is indicated in the management of individual patients. Surgery alone (transurethral resection) is appropriate initial therapy for noninvasive papillary TCC. For lamina propria invasive tumors and carcinoma in situ, intravesical immunotherapy with bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is often the first line of treatment to decrease tumor recurrence and to possibly decrease progression and improve survival. Intravesical chemotherapy and interferon are alternative therapies that can also decrease recurrence rates. For BCG-refractory TCC, durable response rates with alternative intravesical therapies are low. For superficial TCC that is refractory to endoscopic procedures and intravesical agents or for disease progression, radical cystectomy with neobladder formation or other forms of urinary diversion is the treatment of choice.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use
  • BCG Vaccine / therapeutic use
  • Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / pathology
  • Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / therapy*
  • Clinical Trials as Topic
  • Combined Modality Therapy
  • Cystectomy
  • Diet
  • Endoscopy
  • Humans
  • Immunotherapy
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / pathology
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / therapy
  • Survival Rate
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / pathology
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / therapy*


  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • BCG Vaccine