Prevention of cytokine-induced apoptosis by insulin-like growth factor-I is independent of cell adhesion molecules in HT29-D4 colon carcinoma cells-evidence for a NF-kappaB-dependent survival mechanism

Cell Death Differ. 2002 Jul;9(7):768-79. doi: 10.1038/sj.cdd.4401022.


We have previously established that insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I, -II and insulin exert a strong protective effect against tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF)-induced apoptosis in interferon-gamma (IFN)-sensitized HT29-D4 human colon carcinoma cells. In this study, we report that this effect was still operative when cells were cultured in the absence of integrin- and E-cadherin-mediated cell-extracellular matrix and cell-cell interactions. In this model, IGF-I did not activate the focal adhesion kinase, whereas it induced tyrosine phosphorylation of the insulin receptor substrate-1 and activation of the extracellular signal-related kinase 1 and 2, p38, phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase and protein kinase B/Akt. However, the use of specific inhibitors indicated that these pathways did not play a role in the adhesion-independent IGF-I anti-apoptotic signal. In contrast, inhibition of the NF-kappaB activation induced a complete reversal of the IGF-I anchorage-independent protective effect. Correspondingly, IGF-I markedly enhanced the TNF- and IFN/TNF-induced NF-kappaB-dependent interleukin-8 production. Our results provide evidence that IGF-I induces resistance against cytokine-induced cell death even in the absence of cell adhesion-mediated signaling. NF-kappaB appears to be a key mediator of this anti-apoptotic effect that should contribute to the resistance of colon cancer cells to immune-destruction during metastasis.

MeSH terms

  • Apoptosis*
  • Cell Adhesion Molecules / metabolism
  • Cell Communication
  • Cell Survival
  • Drug Resistance
  • Extracellular Matrix / metabolism
  • Focal Adhesion Kinase 1
  • Focal Adhesion Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
  • HT29 Cells
  • Humans
  • Insulin / pharmacology
  • Insulin Receptor Substrate Proteins
  • Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / metabolism*
  • Insulin-Like Growth Factor I / pharmacology
  • Interferon-gamma / pharmacology
  • Interleukin-8 / biosynthesis
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1 / metabolism
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases / metabolism
  • NF-kappa B / metabolism*
  • Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / metabolism
  • Phosphoproteins / metabolism
  • Phosphorylation
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases*
  • Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / metabolism
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins / metabolism
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt
  • Signal Transduction*
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / pharmacology
  • p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases


  • Cell Adhesion Molecules
  • IRS1 protein, human
  • Insulin
  • Insulin Receptor Substrate Proteins
  • Interleukin-8
  • NF-kappa B
  • Phosphoproteins
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • Insulin-Like Growth Factor I
  • Interferon-gamma
  • Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases
  • Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
  • Focal Adhesion Kinase 1
  • Focal Adhesion Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
  • PTK2 protein, human
  • AKT1 protein, human
  • Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 1
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase 3
  • Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases
  • p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases