Headspace solid-phase microextraction analysis of 3-alkyl-2-methoxypyrazines in wines

J Chromatogr A. 2002 Apr 12;953(1-2):1-6. doi: 10.1016/s0021-9673(02)00123-1.


A procedure to determine 3-alkyl-2-methoxypyrazines in wines is described. It is based on the headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) technique after a clean-up of the sample by distillation (previously acidified to pH 0.5) to remove ethanol and other volatile compounds that can interfere in the SPME. Determination is performed by means of capillary gas chromatography using a nitrogen-phosphorus detector. The method allows quantification of 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine, 3-sec-butyl-2-methoxypyrazine and 3-isopropyl-2-methoxypyrazine at their natural concentration levels and below their sensory thresholds in Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot wines. The method was successfully applied to experimental red wines and the evolution of their pyrazine contents during the winemaking process was monitored. Pyrazine content increased during the first maceration day but did not change significantly during alcoholic and malolactic fermentation. Final contents in wines were 12-27 ng/l of 3-isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine and 5-10 ng/l of 3-sec-butyl-2-methoxypyrazine.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Chromatography, Gas / methods*
  • Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
  • Pyrazines / analysis*
  • Volatilization
  • Wine / analysis*


  • Pyrazines