Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is an inducible enzyme that plays an important role in several pathophysiological processes, including inflammation, angiogenesis, and tumorigenesis. We have recently observed that COX-2 induction is restrained in proliferating fibroblasts. The mechanism by which this occurs is unclear. Here, we report the detection and isolation from the conditioned medium of proliferating fibroblasts a factor that suppressed COX-2 expression. This factor, which was named cytoguardin, suppressed COX-2 protein levels induced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, interleukin-1beta, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in fibroblasts and LPS-induced COX-2 protein levels and promoter activities in human endothelial cells and murine RAW 264.7 cells in a comparable concentration-dependent manner. It inhibited COX-2 expression induced by angiogenic factors and endothelial tube formation induced by angiogenic factors and colon cancer cell medium. These findings provide evidence for the control of COX-2 transcription by an endogenous cellular factor.