Eotaxin-3 (CCL26) is a CC chemokine that signals exclusively via the CCR3 receptor and has eosinophil-selective chemoattractant activity. Comparison of Eotaxin-1 (CCL11) and Eotaxin-2 (CCL24), demonstrates differences in their expression profiles, cell specificity and effector kinetics, implying distinct biological actions. But little data in this regard have been reported for Eotaxin-3. We aimed to analyse the effect of Th2 cytokines and glucocorticoids on Eotaxin-3 mRNA expression in human lung epithelial cells and dermal fibroblasts; cells implicated in the pathogenesis of allergic asthma and allergic dermatitis respectively. Eotaxin-3 mRNA levels in primary dermal fibroblasts and NCI-H727 lung epithelial cells were determined by Northern hybridization. In contrast to Eotaxin-1, Eotaxin-3 mRNA expression was not detected in unstimulated cells. The Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 induced Eotaxin-3 expression in a time and dose dependent manner, with IL-4 demonstrating a 100-fold greater potency. Unlike Eotaxin-1, Eotaxin-3 mRNA expression was not induced by either tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha or interleukin (IL)-1 beta alone. Both IL-4 and IL-13 acted synergistically with TNF-alpha in superinducing Eotaxin-3 mRNA expression. Dexamethasone pre-treatment diminished induction of Eotaxin-3 mRNA expression. We conclude that modulation of Eotaxin-3 mRNA expression by Th(2) cytokines is different from that of Eotaxin-1 and Eotaxin-2, further supporting a distinct biological role for Eotaxin-3.
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