Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death and disability for women and men. There are gender differences in recovery from coronary events, which may be due physiological, sociodemographic, or psychosocial factors. Cardiac rehabilitation programs have beneficial effects on coronary recovery. The following presents a review of the literature from MedLine (1997-2001) and PsychInfo (1984-2001) on gender differences in participation in cardiac rehabilitation programs, with a focus on depression, anxiety, self-efficacy and social support. A critical analysis of gaps in the literature as well as areas for future research are presented.