In this study to assess the role of omental biopsy in the diagnosis of extrapelvic disease, data from 100 consecutive women with clinical Stage I endometrial cancer undergoing primary surgical treatment in our institution were analysed: 80 women had an omental biopsy, 20 did not, and six had adenocarcinoma in the omentum. No obvious morbidity attributable to this rapid and easily performed surgical procedure was recorded. We conclude that visual inspection and palpation of the omentum at the time of abdominal surgery for endometrial carcinoma is worthwhile and advisable. In addition, adopting a protocol of histological assessment upstaged a further two cases of this series. These data suggest that this technique might influence the prescription of adjuvant pelvic radiation in approximately one in 10 women currently considered for such therapy, as disease can be easily documented as having extended beyond the conventional radiotherapy field.