Effects of two dimeric iodinated contrast media on renal medullary blood perfusion and oxygenation in dogs

Invest Radiol. 2002 Jul;37(7):368-75. doi: 10.1097/00004424-200207000-00002.


Rationale and objectives: To compare the effects of two iodinated contrast media, iodixanol and ioxaglate, on outer medullary blood flow (MBF) and oxygen tension (MPO(2)) in the dog kidney.

Methods: Iodixanol and ioxaglate were injected selectively into the renal artery (320 mgI/kg) of anesthetized Beagle dogs. MBF and MPO(2) were measured with a laser-Doppler probe and an oxygen-sensing microelectrode implanted in the outer medulla. Urine samples were collected for viscosity and osmolality measurements.

Results: Both contrast media produced a moderate decrease in MBF and MPO(2). The hypoperfusion and hypoxia lasted significantly longer with iodixanol than with ioxaglate. Theophylline, an adenosine receptor antagonist, partially prevented iodixanol-induced hypoxia. Urine viscosity was dramatically increased by iodixanol but not by ioxaglate. Urine osmolality did not differ significantly between groups.

Conclusion: Iodixanol produced a more sustained medullary hypoxia than ioxaglate when injected selectively into the dog renal artery. This may lead to hypoxic cellular damage and subsequent impairment of kidney functions.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Contrast Media / pharmacology*
  • Dogs
  • Injections, Intra-Arterial
  • Ioxaglic Acid / pharmacology*
  • Kidney Medulla / blood supply
  • Kidney Medulla / drug effects*
  • Kidney Medulla / metabolism
  • Male
  • Oxygen Consumption / drug effects
  • Renal Artery
  • Renal Circulation / drug effects*
  • Theophylline / pharmacology
  • Triiodobenzoic Acids / pharmacology*
  • Viscosity


  • Contrast Media
  • Triiodobenzoic Acids
  • Theophylline
  • iodixanol
  • Ioxaglic Acid