Monokine-induced by gamma interferon (MIG) and gamma-interferon-inducible protein (IP-10) are members of the CXC chemokine family that have been shown to be induced by interferon-gamma (IFNy) in some cell types. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether IFNgamma influences CXC chemokine production, particularly MIG and IP-10, in primary rat hepatocytes in culture. Previous experiments in our laboratory have demonstrated that pharmacologic doses of IFNgamma in an in vivo model of hepatic ischemia/reperfusion-induced liver injury resulted in increased hepatic levels of IP-10 and MIG and decreased hepatic levels of macrophage inflammatory protein-2, Kupffer cells, and epithelial neutrophil-activating protein, with a concomitant decrease in neutrophil-mediated hepatic injury. In the current investigation, MIG and IP-10 mRNA and protein were up-regulated in primary rat hepatocytes in vitro in response to IFNgamma. Although MIG and IP-10 mRNA were both somewhat increased at early time points, larger increases in these chemokines were seen at later time points, specifically at 24, 48, and 72 h of incubation as compared to controls. Levels of Kupffer cells and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 mRNA after IFNgamma were negligible and similar to those seen in controls. These findings were confirmed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis. These studies demonstrate that IFNgamma in vitro up-regulates the production of MIG and IP-10, at both the mRNA and protein levels.