Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a naturally occurring phospholipid that exhibits pleiotrophic biological activities, ranging from rapid morphological changes to long-term cellular effects such as induction of gene expression and stimulation of cell proliferation and survival on a wide spectrum of cell types. LPA binds and activates distinct members of the Edg/LP subfamily of G protein-coupled receptors that link to multiple G proteins including Gi, Gq and G12/13 to elicit cellular responses. LPA plays a critical role as a general growth, survival and pro-angiogenic factor, in the regulation of physiological and pathophysiological processes in vivo and in vitro. Our previous work indicates that abnormalities in LPA metabolism and function in ovarian cancer patients may contribute to the initiation and progression of the disease. Thus, LPA could be a potential target for cancer therapy. This review summarizes evidence that implicates LPA in the pathophysiology of human ovarian cancer and likely other types of human malignancies.