Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP) is an autosomal dominant inherited demyelinating neuropathy typically characterized by recurrent episodes of acute painless peripheral nerve palsies often preceded by minor trauma or compression at entrapment sites. However, less classical phenotypes have been reported. A 1.5 Mb deletion in chromosome 17 p11.2 has been shown to be the genetic basis of the disease in the majority of HNPP patients. The few families without this deletion harbored a mutation in the PMP22 gene. We performed a clinical, neurophysiological and molecular genetic study of 6 Spanish HNPP families. Five families (22 individuals) showed the classical chromosome 17 p11.2 deletion and one family (3 individuals) had a novel 3'splice-site mutation in PMP22. Neurophysiological abnormalities were detected in all symptomatic (n=21) and asymptomatic (n=4) deletion or mutation carriers, even in childhood. In addition to the typical presentation we observed other phenotypes: recurrent focal short-term sensory symptoms, a progressive mononeuropathy, a Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease-like chronic progressive polyneuropathy, a chronic sensory polyneuropathy and a chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. We report new or very rare phenotypesThese atypical clinical aspects and intrafamilial heterogeneity are present in families with the HNPP deletion as well as in the family with the PMP22 mutation. However, the CMT disease-like chronic polyneuropathy was more common in the PMP22 mutation family. Intrafamilial heterogeneity also seemed to be more pronounced in this kinship. Patients in this family had a mild chronic motor and sensory polyneuropathy neurophysiologically characterized by delayed distal latencies, reduced nerve conduction velocities (NCV) within the demyelinating range, mildly decreased amplitudes of motor and sensory evoked potentials and absence of conduction blocks. In contrast, patients with the common HNPP deletion, regardless of their phenotype, had a diffuse increase in distal motor latencies contrasting with moderately reduced motor NCVs, preserved sensory nerve action potentials, slowing of NCVs at the common entrapment sites and occasionally conduction blocks. In this study we confirm the clinical and molecular heterogeneity of HNPP, emphasizing the need for a mutation analysis of the PMP22 gene when the common 17p11.2 deletion is not found in clinically suspected HNPP patients. We conclude that the 3'splice-site mutation in PMP22 and the common HNPP deletion have largely the same functional consequences although some clinical and neurophysiological differences were observed.