Resins from several different genera are studied using Fourier transform (FT)-Raman spectroscopy. Tree resins can be broadly divided into those that contain diterpenoid components and those that contain triterpenoid components. The diterpenoid resins analyzed are from the genera Pinus, Cedrus, and Agathis (kauri resin) and the triterpenoid resins examined are samples from Pistacia, Boswellia (frankincense), and Commiphora (myrrh) genera. A protocol is developed to nondestructively distinguish diterpenoid and triterpenoid resins and to differentiate the genera within the two types. The effects of oxidation on the discrimination of the FT-Raman spectra are considered.