Monocyte recruitment and retention in the vasculature is influenced by oxidative stress and is involved in cardiovascular disease (CVD). Individuals with low plasma ascorbate are at elevated risk of CVD. It is unknown whether vitamin C supplementation affects monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells (ECs) in healthy non-smokers. In a randomised double-blind crossover study the effect of vitamin C supplementation (six weeks, 250 mg/day) was determined in subjects with normal (HIC) and below average (LOC) plasma vitamin C concentration at baseline (mean=67 microM, n=20, mean=32 microM, n=20, respectively). LOC subjects showed 30% greater monocyte adhesion to ECs. This was significantly reduced by 37% (P<0.02) following vitamin C supplementation to levels of HIC monocyte adhesion. No differences in plasma malondialdehyde concentrations were observed between groups or after supplementation. In conclusion, vitamin C supplementation normalises monocyte adhesion in subjects with low plasma vitamin C (LOC). This process may be related to a direct effect on monocytes, independent of lipid peroxidation.