Most of our knowledge of transcriptional regulation comes from studies in somatic cells. However, increasing evidence reveals that gene regulation mechanisms are different in haploid germ cells. A number of highly specialized strategies operate during spermatogenesis. These include a unique chromatin reorganization program and the use of distinct promoter elements and specific transcription factors. Deciphering the rules governing transcriptional control during spermatogenesis will provide valuable insights of biomedical importance.