Objective: To characterize clinically patients with cognitive impairment and frontal lobe degeneration at neuroimaging.
Patients and methods: Patients diagnosed of dementia or mild neurocognitive impairment by DSM IV criteria and neuropsychological tests with frontal lobe atrophy and hipoperfusion detected by computed tomography and single photon emission computed tomography.
Results: 18 patients, 5:1 on behalf of women; mean age at onset, 74 years; hereditary for dementia, 38%; mean duration of illness at first testing, 2 years; the most common initial symptoms, memory loss. At initial examination, psychotic or behavioral impairment was found in 61% and parkinsonism in 38%, the commonest cognitive troubles at this moment was the executive function, language and anterograde memory dysfunctions at the same rate. Frontal lobe atrophy and hypoperfusion was found in 100%, temporal in 88% and parietal in 38%. Electroencephalogram was pathological in 33%. The course of the disease was progressive but with fluctuation in 27%. Frontotemporal dementia clinical criteria in 13 patients, 4 of them clinical criteria of dementia with Lewy bodies too, and clinical criteria of Alzheimer s disease in 5.