Spondyloarthritis represents one of the commonest groups of inflammatory arthritides with onset in the third and fourth decades and primarily affecting the axial skeleton. Current treatment is primarily symptomatic, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs being used most commonly. No therapeutics have been shown to prevent structural damage. The development of validated and standardised outcome instruments and a composite criterion of response should encourage evaluation of new therapeutics. Anti-TNF- alpha -directed therapeutics have been shown to be dramatically effective in short-term (12 week) placebo-controlled trials in both ankylosing spondylitis and psoriatic arthritis whilst observational cohorts describe efficacy that is maintained for over one year. Treatment has been well-tolerated, with mycobacterial infections being the primary concern. Significant costs and the requirement for continuous therapy are likely to spur the development of orally bioavailable agents targeting TNF- alpha expression.