The purpose of this article is to survey current knowledge concerning the consequences of a ligament injury on neuromuscular function and its relevance to rehabilitation, in relation to clinical practice. Although it deals with the ACL-injured knee, these views may also apply to other joints. The effects of a ligament injury on neuromuscular function are first considered - i.e., proprioception, postural control, muscle strength, functional performance, movement and activation pattern, central mechanisms, motor control and learning. The treatment and effects of rehabilitation on neuromuscular function are then discussed. The survey is concluded by discussing the clinical significance.