Advanced glycation end products (AGEs), known promoters of diabetic complications, form abundantly in heated foods and are ingested in bioreactive forms. To test whether dietary AGEs play a role in the progression of insulin resistance, C57/BL/KsJ db/db mice were randomly placed for 20 weeks on a diet with either a low AGE content (LAD) or a 3.4-fold higher content of AGE (high AGE diet [HAD]), including (epsilon)N-carboxymethyllysine (CML) and methylglyoxal (MG). LAD-fed mice showed lower fasting plasma insulin levels throughout the study (P = 0.01). Body weight was reduced by approximately 13% compared with HAD-fed mice (P = 0.04) despite equal food intake. LAD-fed mice exhibited significantly improved responses to both glucose (at 40 min, P = 0.003) and insulin (at 60 min, P = 0.007) tolerance tests, which correlated with a twofold higher glucose uptake by adipose tissue (P = 0.02). Compared with the severe hypertrophy and morphological disorganization of islets from HAD-fed mice, LAD-fed mice presented a better-preserved structure of the islets. LAD-fed mice demonstrated significantly increased plasma HDL concentrations (P < 0.0001). Consistent with these observations, LAD-fed mice exhibited twofold lower serum CML and MG concentrations compared with HAD-fed mice (P = 0.02). These results demonstrate that reduced AGE intake leads to lower levels of circulating AGE and to improved insulin sensitivity in db/db mice.