Human estrogen receptor-alpha: regulation by synthesis, modification and degradation

Cell Mol Life Sci. 2002 May;59(5):821-31. doi: 10.1007/s00018-002-8470-2.


This review aims to evaluate the impact that human estrogen receptor-alpha (ER-alpha) synthesis, modification and degradation has on estrogen-dependant physiological and pathological processes within the body. Estrogen signaling is transduced through estrogen receptors, which act as ligand-inducible transcription factors. The significance of different isoforms of ER-alpha that lack structural features of full-length ER-alpha are discussed. The influence of differential promoter usage on the amount and isoform of ER-alpha within individual cell types is also reviewed. Moreover, the potential role of phosphorylation, ubiquitination and acetylation in the function and dynamic turnover of ER-alpha is presented.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Acetylation
  • Estrogen Receptor alpha
  • Exons / genetics
  • Gene Expression Regulation*
  • Humans
  • Models, Biological
  • Phosphorylation
  • Protein Isoforms
  • Receptors, Estrogen / genetics
  • Receptors, Estrogen / metabolism*


  • Estrogen Receptor alpha
  • Protein Isoforms
  • Receptors, Estrogen