Diabetes management depends almost entirely on behavioral self-regulation. Behavioral scientists have continued a collaboration with other health systems researchers to develop a holistic approach to this disease. The authors summarized the literature in 4 major areas: self-management of diabetes, psychosocial adjustment and quality of life, neuropsychological impact, and psychobehavioral intervention development. Progress made in each of these areas over the past decade is highlighted, as are important issues that have not yet received sufficient scientific attention. Emerging areas likely to become central in behavioral research, such as diabetes prevention, are introduced. The future of behavioral medicine in diabetes is also discussed, including topics such as the changing role of psychologists in diabetes care, the urgent need for more and better intervention research, the growing importance of incorporating a health system-public health perspective, and obstacles to the integration of psychobehavioral approaches into routine health care delivery.