Mast cells are derived from multipotential hematopoietic progenitors and are clonally increased in systemic mastocytosis, a disease associated with point mutations of codon 816 (most commonly Asp816Val) of c-kit. To study the lineage relationship and the extent of expansion of cells derived from the mutated clone, we examined the occurrence of the Asp816Val c-kit mutation in genomic DNA of individual sorted peripheral blood T cells, B cells, and monocytes in patients with indolent systemic mastocytosis. The mutation was detected in varying frequencies in the genomic DNA of individual B cells and monocytes and bone marrow mast cells in patients with extensive disease. In B cells, the immunoglobulin repertoire was polyclonal, indicating that the mutation occurred before V(H)/(D)/J(H) recombination. These results show that mastocytosis is a disorder of a pluripotential hematopoietic progenitor cell that gives rise to B cells and monocytes in addition to mast cells and that the affected clone shows variable expansion in these lineages in the peripheral blood of patients with systemic mastocytosis.