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, 277 (36), 32791-8

Hypoxia and Nitric Oxide Treatment Confer Tolerance to Glucose Starvation in a 5'-AMP-activated Protein Kinase-Dependent Manner

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Hypoxia and Nitric Oxide Treatment Confer Tolerance to Glucose Starvation in a 5'-AMP-activated Protein Kinase-Dependent Manner

Hiroyasu Esumi et al. J Biol Chem.

Abstract

Hypoxia is a critical event for higher organisms, and cells and tissues react by increasing the oxygen supply by vasodilatation, angiogenesis, and erythropoiesis and maintaining cellular energy by increasing glycolysis and inhibiting anabolic pathways. Stimulation of glycolysis has been regarded as the main response that increases energy production during hypoxia; however, there is an obvious conflict during ischemia, because both the oxygen and glucose supply are insufficient. In this study, we found that exposure of HepG2 cells and normal fibroblasts to hypoxia induces cellular tolerance to glucose starvation. The tolerance induced by hypoxia is dependent on several amino acids, indicating a switch from glucose to amino acids as the energy source. When antisense RNA expression vector for 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase or protein kinase B/Akt was transfected into HepG2 cells, the induction of tolerance to glucose was greatly inhibited, indicating that the tolerance was dependent on 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase and protein kinase B/Akt. Similar tolerance was induced by nitric oxide exposure. The tolerance induced was observed in various cells and may represent a previously unknown physiological response related to hypoxia-preconditioning and tumor progression:austerity.

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