This meta-analysis had the aim of studying the available studies on comparison between Hemodialysis and Peritoneal Dialysis in the elderly. The final objective was to reach, if possible, evidence for potential differences. In the case that no differences could be demonstrated, contribute to accept that HD and PD are similar techniques to be offered to elderly people requiring dialysis. The question formulated was this: Do we have adequately contrasted data on results for survival, hospitalization rate, quality of life and morbidity on hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis in the elderly (more than 65 years old)? As data sources we selected eight papers that compared the general results of these two dialysis techniques. Different elements were considered in this selection because none reached the two first levels in the hierarchy of sources of evidence, and only two reached the third level--that of prospective studies; this is because an oral presentation of data has been included in a meta-analysis. Another four papers--uni- or multicenter retrospective studies compared the results obtained with PD and HD. The remaining two papers--reports from nationwide registries that compare of mortality rates, adjusted for co-morbid conditions and age, present specific results on groups of elderly patients. Three papers compare particular aspects of the two techniques, including nutritional status, psychiatric and psychosocial aspects and rehabilitation, in this case comparing PD with home hemodialysis patients. Finally, we have included the opinions of healthy elderly people on dialysis issues. This meta-analysis of these different studies suggests that the mortality and hospitalization rate of elderly people treated by PD is similar to that of similar people treated by HD. In consequence, we have no reasons to select either therapy on behalf of the patient. The nephrologist should consider and inform the patient and family about the relative advantages and disadvantages of both techniques and tailor dialysis technique choice to the specific individual to assure the best results. Local circumstances should also be considered.