An update on current practices in the management of ocular toxoplasmosis

Am J Ophthalmol. 2002 Jul;134(1):102-14. doi: 10.1016/s0002-9394(02)01526-x.


Purpose: To update information that was published by the AMERICAN JOURNAL OF OPHTHALMOLOGY in 1991 about treatment practices for ocular toxoplasmosis by uveitis specialists.

Design: Physician survey.

Methods: A written questionnaire was distributed to all physician-members (n = 147) of the American Uveitis Society. The questionnaire was modeled after a similar device used to survey uveitis specialists in 1991. Information contained on 96 returned questionnaires was tabulated.

Results: Among 79 respondents who evaluate and manage patients with ocular toxoplasmosis, 15% treat all cases regardless of clinical findings (in contrast to 6% in 1991). The major indications for treatment among other respondents were severe inflammatory responses and proximity of retinal lesions to the fovea and optic disk. The majority of clinical factors considered in five categories (vision, lesion location, lesion size, lesion characteristics, and vitreous inflammatory reaction) were identified to be relative or absolute indications for treatment by a greater proportion of respondents in the current survey than in the 1991 survey. A total of nine drugs (or commercially available combinations) were used in 24 different regimens as treatments of choice for typical cases of recurrent toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis, with the combination of pyrimethamine, sulfadiazine, and prednisone being the most commonly used regimen (29% of respondents).

Conclusions: Uveitis specialists appear to be more likely to treat patients with ocular toxoplasmosis in 2001 than in 1991. Although the majority of survey respondents adhere to a traditional approach to the management of toxoplasmic retinochoroiditis (a discrete course of systemic drug treatment during active disease using multiple antiparasitic drugs with or without corticosteroids), there is still no consensus regarding the choice of antiparasitic agents for treatment regimens. Survey results provide useful information for treating physicians and for clinical investigators interested in therapy.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Antiprotozoal Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Drug Therapy, Combination
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Male
  • Ophthalmology
  • Practice Patterns, Physicians' / statistics & numerical data*
  • Pregnancy
  • Recurrence
  • Risk Factors
  • Societies, Medical
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Toxoplasmosis, Ocular / drug therapy*


  • Antiprotozoal Agents