Overdiagnosis due to prostate-specific antigen screening: lessons from U.S. prostate cancer incidence trends

J Natl Cancer Inst. 2002 Jul 3;94(13):981-90. doi: 10.1093/jnci/94.13.981.


Background: Overdiagnosis of clinically insignificant prostate cancer is considered a major potential drawback of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening. Quantitative estimates of the magnitude of this problem are, however, lacking. We estimated rates of prostate cancer overdiagnosis due to PSA testing that are consistent with the observed incidence of prostate cancer in the United States from 1988 through 1998. Overdiagnosis was defined as the detection of prostate cancer through PSA testing that otherwise would not have been diagnosed within the patient's lifetime.

Methods: We developed a computer simulation model of PSA testing and subsequent prostate cancer diagnosis and death from prostate cancer among a hypothetical cohort of two million men who were 60-84 years old in 1988. Given values for the expected lead time--that is, the time by which the test advanced diagnosis--and the expected incidence of prostate cancer in the absence of PSA testing, the model projected the increase in population incidence of prostate cancer associated with PSA testing. By comparing the model-projected incidence with the observed incidence derived from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registry data, we determined the lead times and corresponding overdiagnosis rates that were consistent with the observed data.

Results: SEER data on prostate cancer incidence from 1988 through 1998 were consistent with overdiagnosis rates of approximately 29% for whites and 44% for blacks among men with prostate cancers detected by PSA screening.

Conclusions: Among men with prostate cancer that would be detected only at autopsy, these rates correspond to overdiagnosis rates of, at most, 15% in whites and 37% in blacks. The observed trends in prostate cancer incidence are consistent with considerable overdiagnosis among PSA-detected cases. However, the results suggest that the majority of screen-detected cancers diagnosed between 1988 and 1998 would have presented clinically and that only a minority of cases found at autopsy would have been detected by PSA testing.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Computer Simulation
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Male
  • Mass Screening
  • Models, Statistical
  • Population Surveillance
  • Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood*
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / blood
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / diagnosis*
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / mortality
  • SEER Program
  • Sensitivity and Specificity
  • Survival Rate
  • United States / epidemiology


  • Prostate-Specific Antigen